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Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. With diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin it does make.

Diabetes Mellitus

Also Known As:  Diabetes mellitus, Blood Sugar, Blood Glucose, Glucose

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Related Diaseases: Kidney Diseases, Pancreatic Diseases, Heart Disease, Heart Attack, Stroke, Metabolic Syndrome, Acidosis and Alkalosis, Neuropathy, Pregnancy

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells.

Definition of diabetes mellitus:

  • Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders of carbohydrates metabolism in which glucose is not properly utilized, leading to hyperglycemia.
  • Criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes Mellitus:
    • Polyuria, polydipsia and rapid weight loss.
    • Insulinopenia decreased insulin due to the loss of β-cells of the pancreas.
    • Most patients have autoantibody were called an autoimmune process.
    • While no cause known is called idiopathic type.

Types of Diabetes:

The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

  • Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas, where insulin is made. It’s unclear what causes this attack. About 10 percent of people with diabetes have this type.
  • Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar builds up in your blood.
  • Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar during pregnancy. Insulin-blocking hormones produced by the placenta cause this type of diabetes.

General symptoms:

The general symptoms of diabetes include:

  • increased hunger
  • increased thirst
  • weight loss
  • frequent urination
  • blurry vision
  • extreme fatigue
  • sores that don’t heal

Type 1 diabetes

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can include:

  • extreme hunger
  • increased thirst
  • unintentional weight loss
  • frequent urination
  • blurry vision
  • tiredness

Type 2 diabetes:

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes can include:

  • increased hunger
  • increased thirst
  • increased urination
  • blurry vision
  • tiredness
  • sores that are slow to heal

Gestational diabetes:

Most women with gestational diabetes don’t have any symptoms. The condition is often detected during a routine blood sugar test or oral glucose tolerance test that is usually performed between the 24th and 28th weeks of gestation.

Diabetes complications:

High blood sugar damages organs and tissues throughout your body. The higher your blood sugar is and the longer you live with it, the greater your risk for complications.

Complications associated with diabetes include:

How to Diagnose Diabetes:

Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes or is at risk for the disease should be tested. Women are routinely tested for gestational diabetes during their second or third trimesters of pregnancy.

Doctors use these blood tests to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:

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