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Blood Sugar Level

Also Known As:  Blood Sugar, Fasting Blood Sugar, FBS, Fasting Blood Glucose, FBG, Fasting Plasma Glucose, FPG, Blood Glucose, Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, OGTT, GTT, Urine Glucose

Tests in Glucose Panel:

BSR, BSL, BSF, OGTT, GTT, GCT, Urine Sugar, HbA1c,

Why Get Tested:

  • This test is done to diagnose diabetes mellitus.
  • This test is also done to evaluate and monitoring of the patient with diabetes mellitus.

When to Get Tested:

Blood glucose: when you are older than 45 years or have risk factors for diabetes; when you have symptoms suggesting high or low blood glucose; during pregnancy; when you are diabetic, self-checks up to several times a day to monitor blood glucose levels

Sample Required:

  • This test can be done on Serum. The serum should be separated within 30 minutes of collection.
  • The serum can be stored at 25° C for 8 hours and 72 hours at 4 °C.
  • Oxalate blood can also be used. Preservative sodium fluoride may be added.
  • The plasma can be stored at 25 °C for 24 hours (when there is preservative sodium fluoride).

Normal Values:

  • Fasting Blood Sugar: 74 to 106 mg/dL (4.5 to 5.9 mmol/L)
  • Random Blood Sugar: 80 to 120 mg/dl (4.4 to 6.6 mmol/L).

Increase glucose level (Hyperglycemia) seen in:

  • Diabetes mellitus, adult and juvenile.
  • Physiological causes.
    • Strenuous exercise.
    • Strong emotions.
    • Shock and burns.
    • Infections.
  • Endocrine disorders.
    • Thyrotoxicosis
    • Acromegaly and gigantism.
    • Pheochromocytoma.
    • Cushing’s syndrome.
  • Pancreatic diseases.
    • Acute and chronic pancreatitis.
    • Pancreatitis due to mumps.
    • Cystic fibrosis.
    • Hemochromatosis.
    • Pancreatic cancers.
  • other causes are:
    • Cerebrovascular accident.
    • Chronic liver disease.
    • Chronic renal disease.
    • Acanthosis nigricans.

Decreased glucose level (Hypoglycemia) seen in:

  • Pancreatic disorders.
    • Islet Cell Tumor.
    • Glucagon deficiency.
  • Tumors.
    • Adrenal gland carcinoma.
    • carcinoma of stomach.
    • Fibrosarcoma.
  • Liver diseases.
    • In poisoning e.g. arsenic, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, phosphorus, salicylates, antihistamines, phenformin, and alcohol.
  • Endocrine disorders.
    • Hypopituitarism.
    • Addison’s disease.
    • hypothyroidism.
  • Functional disorders.
    • Postgastrectomy.
    • Gastroenterostomy.
    • Autonomic nervous system disorders.
  • Pediatric causes.
    • Prematurity.
    • Infant diabetic mothers.
    • Idiopathic leucine sensitivity.
  • Enzyme deficiency.
    • Galactosemia.
    • Fructose intolerance.
    • Von Gierke’s syndrome.


Possible References Used


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