A urinalysis is a test of your urine. A urinalysis is used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease and diabetes.
A urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine. Abnormal urinalysis results may point to a disease or illness.
Type of urine samples:
- Random sample:
This is a diluted urine sample and may give an inaccurate interpretation of patient health. But is best to do microscopy to evaluate WBC or RBC.
- First Morning sample:
This is the best sample for microscopy and urine analysis. This is the concentrated urine because of urine remained throughout the night in the urinary bladder. This will contains an increased concentration of analytes and cellular elements. Urine must have remained in the bladder for 8 hours is considered as the first-morning sample.
- Urine for sugar (Postprandial 2 hours):
Postprandial 2 hours sample collected after 2 hours of high carbohydrate diet.
- Midstream clean catch urine:
This sample is needed for the culture and sensitivity of urinary infection. The patient is advised to clean the urethra, then discard the first few mL of urine. Now midstream of the urine is collected in the sterile container.
- 24 Hours of a urine sample
- In this case, discard the first urine and note the time.
- Now collect urine in the container for 24 hours and put the last sample in the container.
- Refrigerate the sample.
- This 24 hours samples are needed for measuring urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, glucose, and catecholamines.
- Suprapubic collection of the urine sample:
This is done in the patients who cannot be catheterized and the sample is needed for culture. This sample is collected by the needle.
- Catheter collection of urine:
This is done by patients who are bedridden and can not urinate.
- Pediatric urine sample:
In infants, special collection bags are made adherent around the urethra. Then urine is transferred to a container.
Urine Microscopic Examination:
During this exam, several drops of urine are viewed with a microscope. If any of the following are observed in above-average levels, additional testing may be necessary:
- White blood cells (leukocytes) may be a sign of an infection.
- Red blood cells (erythrocytes) may be a sign of kidney disease, a blood disorder or another underlying medical condition, such as bladder cancer.
- Bacteria or yeasts may indicate an infection.
- Casts — tube-shaped proteins — may form as a result of kidney disorders.
- Crystals that form from chemicals in urine may be a sign of kidney stones.
White Blood Cells (WBC) or Pus Cells in Urine:
Leukocyte esterase is an enzyme present in most white blood cells (white blood cells). A few white blood cells are normally present in the urine and generally give a negative result in the chemical test. … The most common cause of white blood cells in the urine (leukocyturia) is a bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI), such as a bladder or kidney infection.
Increased in WBCs in urine is called Pyuria.
Increased WBCs in urine is seen in:
- Bacterial infection of urinary tract.
- Acute Appendicitis.
- Chronic pyelonephritis.
- Bladder Tumors.
- An autoimmune disease like SLE.
Symptoms of the urinary tract infection shows:
- Increased infrequent urination.
- There is blood in the urine (hematuria).
- Urine color is cloudy.
- There is a burning sensation.
Causative agents are:
- The most common is E.coli. About 80% of UTI is due to this bacteria.
- Staphylococcus is a common cause in the young sexually active females.
- Klebsiella and Enterobacter are also common causative agents.
- Sometime Candida may also cause UTI.
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