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Urine Glucose

A urine glucose test is a quick and simple way to check for abnormally high levels of glucose in your urine. Glucose is a type of sugar that your body requires and uses for energy. Your body converts the carbohydrates you eat into glucose.

A urinalysis is a test of your urine. A urinalysis is used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease and diabetes.

A urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine. Abnormal urinalysis results may point to a disease or illness.

Urine Chemical Examination

Also Known as:  Urine TestUrine Analysis , Urine CE, Urine C/E, UCE, Urinalysis

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Test Panel: Physical properties, Chemical Tests, Dipstick Tests, Microscopic Examination

Type of urine samples:

  • Random sample:
    This is a diluted urine sample and may give an inaccurate interpretation of patient health. But is best to do microscopy to evaluate WBC or RBC.
  • First Morning sample:
    This is the best sample for microscopy and urine analysis. This is the concentrated urine because of urine remained throughout the night in the urinary bladder. This will contains an increased concentration of analytes and cellular elements. Urine must have remained in the bladder for 8 hours is considered as the first-morning sample.
  • Urine for sugar (Postprandial 2 hours):
    Postprandial 2 hours sample collected after 2 hours of high carbohydrate diet. 
  • Midstream clean catch urine:
    This sample is needed for the culture and sensitivity of urinary infection. The patient is advised to clean the urethra, then discard the first few mL of urine. Now midstream of the urine is collected in the sterile container.
  • 24 Hours of a urine sample
    • In this case, discard the first urine and note the time.
    • Now collect urine in the container for 24 hours and put the last sample in the container.
    • Refrigerate the sample.
    • This 24 hours samples are needed for measuring urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, glucose, and catecholamines.
  • Suprapubic collection of the urine sample:
    This is done in the patients who cannot be catheterized and the sample is needed for culture. This sample is collected by the needle.
  • Catheter collection of urine:
    This is done by patients who are bedridden and can not urinate.
  • Pediatric urine sample:
    In infants, special collection bags are made adherent around the urethra. Then urine is transferred to a container.

Urine Glucose

A urine glucose test is a quick and simple way to check for abnormally high levels of glucose in your urine. Glucose is a type of sugar that your body requires and uses for energy. Your body converts the carbohydrates you eat into glucose.

Dipstick Urine Tests

Why get Tested:

  1. To diagnose diabetes mellitus.
  2. To monitor the diabetes mellitus.
  3. To evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy.
  4. To diagnose gestational diabetes.
  5. It is part of a routine urine examination.

Noemal Range:

  • Normally sugar (glucose ) is absent in the urine.
    • Random specimen = negative
  • 24 hours specimen = < 0.5 g/day (<2.78 mmol/day).
  • It appears above the blood glucose level of 180 mg/dL (renal threshold).
  • Its concentration in the urine correlates with the blood glucose level.

Reporting the result

  1. Can report as plus + signs, from 1+ to 4+.
  2. It can report the percentage of 1 to 2 %. This reporting is more accurate.

Increased glucose in urine seen in:

  1. Diabetes mellitus.
  2. Renal glycosuria.
  3. Hereditary defects in the metabolism of other reducing substances like galactose, pentose, and fructose.
  4. Pregnancy.
  5. Liver diseases.
  6. Pancreatic diseases.
  7. Thyrotoxicosis.
  8. Cushing’s syndrome.
  9. Acromegaly.
  10. Brain injuries.
  11. Shock.
  12. Fanconi’s syndrome (Tubular defect).
  13. Advanced renal tubular diseases.
  14. Nephrotoxic chemicals like carbon monoxide, lead, and mercury.

The false-negative result is seen in:

  1. Mostly seen due to drugs.
    1. Ascorbic acid.
    2. Levodopa.
    3. Phenothiazine.

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