Anti Antiglobulin Test Types, Purpose, Procedure, Results and more
The antiglobulin test, also known as the Coombs test, is a laboratory test used to detect the presence of antibodies or complement proteins attached to the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). It is primarily used to diagnose and investigate immune-related blood disorders, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia and hemolytic disease of the newborn.
|Also Known as||Coombs Test, Antiglobulin Test, Anti Human Globulin Test|
|Test Purpose||This Test to done find certain antibodies that cause autoimmune haemolysis of red blood cells (erythrocytes).|
|Test Preparations||No Need any Preparations|
|Test Components||Coombs Test Direct|
Coombs Test Indirect
|Specimen||Direct coombs: 3 ML (2 ML Min.) Whole Blood From 1 Lavender Top (EDTA) Tube. |
Indirect Coombs: 2 ML (1 ML Min.) Serum From 1 SST.
|Stability Room||Direct Coombs: 2 hours|
Indirect Coombs : 2 hours
|Stability Refrigerated||Direct Coombs: 1 week|
Indirect Coombs : 48 hours
|Stability Frozen||Direct Coombs: 2 weeks|
Indirect Coombs : N/A
|Method||Erythrocyte Magnetised Technology|
|Download Report||Download Report|
Types of Coombs Test:
There are two different types of Coombs tests
- Direct Coombs Test:
The direct Coombs test (sometimes called the direct antiglobulin test) examines red blood cells to see if they have antibodies attached to them. It is often used to diagnose blood-related conditions, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia. People with autoimmune hemolytic anemia don’t have enough red blood cells because their bodies destroy them too soon.
- Indirect Coombs Test:
The indirect Coombs test tells your provider if there are antibodies present in your bloodstream that could attach to red blood cells. It is used as a screening process to see how you will react to a blood transfusion. An indirect Coombs test is also routinely done as part of prenatal testing.
Principle of Coombs’ Test
Red blood cells coated with complement or IgG antibodies do not directly agglutinate when centrifuged. These cells are said to be IgG or complement sensitized. For agglutination to occur, an additional antibody must be added to the system that reacts with the Fc portion of the IgG antibody, or with the C3b or C3d component of complement. This will form a “bridge” between the antibodies or complement that coats the red blood cells, causing agglutination.
Coombs Test Result Mean
|Result||Direct Coombs Test||Indirect Coombs Test|
|Negative result||Antibodies not attached to Red Blood Cells||Antibodies not loose in Serum|
|Positive result||Antibodies attached to Red Blood Cells||Antibodies loose in Serum|
A Positive Coombs test is seen in
A positive (abnormal) Coombs’ test means you have antibodies that can attack your red blood cells. This can be caused by various conditions, including:
- Autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
- Infectious mononucleosis.
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
- Mycoplasma infection, a type of respiratory disease.
- A negative reaction to a blood transfusion.
Positive test during Pregnancy mean
If you test positive during your pregnancy, it means you need to take steps to protect your baby from Rh sensitization.
Positive Coombs in Baby
Meaning of Negative Coombs Test Result
A negative (normal) test result is good news. It means that no antibodies against red blood cells were found.
- You can safely receive donor blood during a transfusion.
- You don’t have to worry about Rh sensitization affecting your unborn baby.
Possible References Used