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Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to a specific type of Salmonella that causes symptoms. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe, and usually begin 6 to 30 days after exposure. There is often a gradual onset of high fever for several days.

Typhoid Fever

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Related Content: Typhidot Test, Widal Test, CBC, Blood Culture, Urine Culture, Stool Culture, Bone Marrow


Signs and symptoms are likely to develop gradually .

Common Symptoms:

  • High Fever
  • Headache
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea

Detailed Signs and Symptoms:

  1. Salmonella infection is more common in children less than 10 years of age.
  2. Prodromal stage: There is malaise, headache, cough, sore throat, abdominal pain, and constipation.
    1. Diarrhea is late symptoms and is usually in the third week of illness.
  3. Fever: It is constant and ascends in a stepwise pattern.
  4. 7 to 10 days: There is  Paek and patients are sicker.
    1. Early diarrhea.
    2. Abdominal distension.
  5. Patients improve after 7 to 10 days.
    1. Untreated cases recover in about 4 weeks.
    2. Symptoms disappear with antibiotics within 3 to 4 days.
  6. Relapse may occur after 2 weeks.
  7. The gastroenteritis incubation period is 8 to 24 hours.
    1. There are nausea and vomiting.
    2. There is abdominal pain.
    3. There is diarrhea.
    4. There may be a fever.
    5. This is self-limiting disease and recovery is usually within a week.

Sauses of Typhidot:

  1. Contaminated food (including meat).
  2. Contaminated water supply.
  3. Washing fruit, vegetables and vessel can spread it, if contaminated water is used.


  • CBC Test: Shows Low TLC (WBC).
  • Blood culture, positive in the first week of infection in 80 % of the cases. But blood culture may reach 90 % of the cases and it decreases to 50% in the third week.
  • Bone marrow culture if taken will be positive and may have a high yield of up to 90% sensitivity.
  • Stool culture will be a positive but not reliable test. This will be positive within the first 7 days of infection.
  • Widal test will be positive after 7 to 10 days of infection.
  • Typhidot test claimed by the manufacturing companies that it will be positive after 2 to 3 days.
  • Urine culture may be done and is positive in the case of enteric fever but is less sensitive.


  1. The drug of choice is the Ciprofloxacin.
  2. Chloramphenicol is also effective but this may have a serious side effect.
  3. Co-trimoxazole is also used and has less serious side effects like Chloramphenicol.

Prevention Of The Disease

  • The Hygenic measure like:
    • Clean water supply.
    • Adequate disposal of the sewage material.
    • Washing of the hands after the defecation. The best is to wash your hands with soap at least three times.
    • Take care of food handling and processing.
  • For the carriers, give them treatment and advise them to wash hands after the defection.
  • Vaccination should be advised in the family where there is a history of enteric fever.
    • Injectable vaccine.

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