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Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to a specific type of Salmonella that causes symptoms. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe, and usually begin 6 to 30 days after exposure. There is often a gradual onset of high fever for several days.

Typhoid Fever
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Related Content: Typhidot Test, Widal Test, CBC, Blood Culture, Urine Culture, Stool Culture, Bone Marrow

Symptoms:

Signs and symptoms are likely to develop gradually .

Common Symptoms:

  • High Fever
  • Headache
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea

Detailed Signs and Symptoms:

  1. Salmonella infection is more common in children less than 10 years of age.
  2. Prodromal stage: There is malaise, headache, cough, sore throat, abdominal pain, and constipation.
    1. Diarrhea is late symptoms and is usually in the third week of illness.
  3. Fever: It is constant and ascends in a stepwise pattern.
  4. 7 to 10 days: There is  Paek and patients are sicker.
    1. Early diarrhea.
    2. Abdominal distension.
  5. Patients improve after 7 to 10 days.
    1. Untreated cases recover in about 4 weeks.
    2. Symptoms disappear with antibiotics within 3 to 4 days.
  6. Relapse may occur after 2 weeks.
  7. The gastroenteritis incubation period is 8 to 24 hours.
    1. There are nausea and vomiting.
    2. There is abdominal pain.
    3. There is diarrhea.
    4. There may be a fever.
    5. This is self-limiting disease and recovery is usually within a week.

Sauses of Typhidot:

  1. Contaminated food (including meat).
  2. Contaminated water supply.
  3. Washing fruit, vegetables and vessel can spread it, if contaminated water is used.

Diagnoses:

  • CBC Test: Shows Low TLC (WBC).
  • Blood culture, positive in the first week of infection in 80 % of the cases. But blood culture may reach 90 % of the cases and it decreases to 50% in the third week.
  • Bone marrow culture if taken will be positive and may have a high yield of up to 90% sensitivity.
  • Stool culture will be a positive but not reliable test. This will be positive within the first 7 days of infection.
  • Widal test will be positive after 7 to 10 days of infection.
  • Typhidot test claimed by the manufacturing companies that it will be positive after 2 to 3 days.
  • Urine culture may be done and is positive in the case of enteric fever but is less sensitive.

Treatment:

  1. The drug of choice is the Ciprofloxacin.
  2. Chloramphenicol is also effective but this may have a serious side effect.
  3. Co-trimoxazole is also used and has less serious side effects like Chloramphenicol.

Prevention Of The Disease

  • The Hygenic measure like:
    • Clean water supply.
    • Adequate disposal of the sewage material.
    • Washing of the hands after the defecation. The best is to wash your hands with soap at least three times.
    • Take care of food handling and processing.
  • For the carriers, give them treatment and advise them to wash hands after the defection.
  • Vaccination should be advised in the family where there is a history of enteric fever.
    • Injectable vaccine.

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