Why get Tested :
A liver function test is often recommended in the following situations:
- LFT diagnose any kind of liver disease.
- to check for damage from liver infections, such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C
- LFT has done for follow up of the patient on treatment.
- LFT is done in routine in patients on chemotherapy.
- LFT may be advised in a patient with treatment on antituberculous treatment.
When to Get Tested :
- if you already have a liver disease, to monitor the disease and how well a particular treatment is working
- if you’re experiencing the symptoms of a liver disorder
- if you have certain medical conditions such as high triglycerides, diabetes, high blood pressure, or anemia
- if you drink alcohol heavily
- if you have gallbladder disease
Sample Required :
- It is done on the serum of the patient.
- Heparinized plasma can be used.
- A random sample can be taken.
- The serum is stable for 3 days at 1 to 6 °C.
Precautions for Sample :
- Avoid hemolysis.
- For bilirubin, fasting sample is preferred.
- Protect serum or plasma from the light.
- Lipemia also falsely increased the value.
When LFTs Orderd :
A liver panel, or one or more of its components, may be ordered when someone is at risk for liver dysfunction. Some examples include:
- People who take medications that may potentially damage the liver
- Those who are alcoholics or heavy drinkers
- Those who have a history of known or possible exposure to hepatitis viruses
- Individuals whose families have a history of liver disease
- People who are overweight, especially if they have diabetes and/or high blood pressure
A liver panel may be ordered when a person has signs and symptoms of liver disease; however, most people who have liver disease do not have any of these symptoms until the disease has been present for many years or is very severe. Some of these include:
- Weakness, fatigue
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea, vomiting
- Abdominal swelling and/or pain
- Jaundice (yellowing of eyes or skin)
- Dark urine, light-colored stool
- Itching (pruritus)
Usually no one single set of liver tests is used to make a diagnosis. Often, several liver panels will be ordered over a few days or weeks to help determine the cause of the liver disorder and evaluate its severity
What is Being Tested :
Theses tests are tested in Liver Function Tests (LFT’s) :
- Total Bilirubin
- Conjugated Bilirumin
- Unconjugated Bilirubin
- ALT (SGPT)
- AST (SGOT)
- Alkaline Phasphatase
- Total Protein (TP)
- A/G Ratio
- Gamma GT (GGT)
|Total bilirubin||o.3 to 1.0 mg/dL|
Newborn : 1.0 to 12.0 mg/dL.
|Conjugated bilirubin||0.1 to 0.3 mg/dL|
|Unconjugated bilirubin||0.1 to 0.8 mg/dL|
|Alkaline phosphatase||Adult = 30 to 120 units/L|
Child <2 years = 85 to 235 units/L
2 to 8 years = 65 to 210 units/L
9 to 15 years = 60 to 300 units/L
16 to 21 years = 30 to 200 units/L
|SGOT (AST)||Adult = 0 to 35 units|
Elderly = values slightly higher than adult
Newborn and infants = 15 to 60 units/L
|SGPT (ALT)||Adult and child = 4 to 40 units/L|
Infants may be twice high as the adult value
|Albumin||Adult = 3.5 to 5 g/dL|
Premature infants = 3 to 4.2 g/dL
Newborn = 3.5 to 5.5 g/dL
Infant = 4.4 to 5.4 g/dLChild = 4 to 5.9 g/dL
|Total protein||6.4 to 8.3 g/dL|
|A/G ratio||0.8 to 2.0|
|Gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT).||Adult >45 years = 8 to 38 units/L|
Female <45 years = 5 to 27 units/L
Child like adult level
Newborn = 5 times higher than adult level
What does the test result mean?
|Type of liver condition or disease||Bilirubin||ALT and AST||ALP||Albumin||PT|
|Acute liver damage (due, for example, to infection, toxins or drugs, etc.)||Normal or increased usually after ALT and AST are already increased||Usually greatly increased (> 10 times); ALT is usually higher than AST||Normal or only moderately increased||Normal||Usually normal|
|Chronic forms of various liver disorders||Normal or increased||Mildly or moderately increased; ALT is persistently increased||Normal to slightly increased||Normal||Normal|
|Alcoholic Hepatitis||Normal or increased||AST is moderately increased, usually at least twice the level of ALT||Normal or moderately increased||Normal||Normal|
|Cirrhosis||May be increased but this usually occurs later in the disease||AST is usually higher than ALT but levels are usually lower than in alcoholic disease||Normal or increased||Normal or decreased||Usually prolonged|
|Bile duct obstruction, cholestasis||Normal or increased; increased in complete obstruction||Normal to moderately increased||Increased; often greater than 4 times what is normal||Usually normal but if the disease is chronic, levels may decrease||Usually normal|
|Cancer that has spread to the liver (metastasized)||Usually normal||Normal or slightly increased||Usually greatly increased||Normal||Normal|
|Cancer originating in the liver (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC)||May be increased, especially if the disease has progressed||AST higher than ALT but levels lower than that seen in alcoholic disease||Normal or increased||Normal or decreased||Usually prolonged|
|Autoimmune||Normal or increased||Moderately increased; ALT usually higher than AST||Normal or slightly increased||Usually decreased||Normal|
Possible References Used