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Globulin

This blood test measures gamma globulins and other proteins in your blood. It can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions, including disorders of the immune system and a type of cancer called multiple myeloma.

Globuline Test

Also Known as: Globulin, Globulin Test

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Test Panel: Total Bilirubin, Conjagated Bilirubin, Unconjugated Bilirubin, ALT, AST, ALP, Total Protein, Albumin, Globulin, A/G ratio, GGT,

Why Get Tested:

Globulin tests can be used to help diagnose a variety of conditions, including:

  • Liver damage or disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Nutritional problems
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Certain types of cancer

When to get Tested:

Your health care provider may order globulin tests as part your regular checkup or to help diagnose specific conditions. A total protein test may be included in a series of tests to check how well your liver is working. These tests, called liver function tests, may be ordered if you are at risk for liver disease or have symptoms of liver disease, which may include:

  • Jaundice, a condition that causes your skin and eyes to turn yellow
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Itching
  • Recurring fatigue
  • Fluid buildup in the abdomen, feet, and legs
  • Loss of appetite

A serum protein electrophoresis test measures gamma globulins and other proteins. This test may be ordered to diagnose disorders related to the immune system, including:

Functions of Globulins :

  1. These are the main component of immunoglobulins (Antibodies).
  2. Some are transporting proteins like thyroid and cortisol binding protein.
  3. Haptoglobin binds hemoglobin during hemolysis.
  4. Ceruloplasmin is a carrier of copper.
  5. They may also act as a transport vehicle.

Normal Value:

  • Total protein = 6.4 to 8.3 g/dL.
  • Albumin = 3.5 to 5 g/dL.
  • Globulin = 2.3 to 3.4 g/dL.
    • alpha 1 globulin = 0.1 to .3 g/mL.
    • alpha 2 globulin = 0.6 to 1.0 g/dL.
    • beta globulin = 0.7 to 1.1 g/dL.

Globulin Test Procedure:

Calculation: Globulin= Total ProteinAlbumin Level

Example:
Total Protein = 7.8 g/dl
Albumin: 4.2 g/dl
Globulin: Total Protein – Albumin = 3.6 g/dl

Increased α-1 globulin seen in:

  1. Biliary Cirrhosis.
  2. Obstructive jaundice.
  3. Multiple myelomas.
  4. Kidney disease like nephrosis.
  5. Acute and chronic infection.
  6. Ulcerative colitis.

Decreased α-1 globulin seen in:

  1. Kidney diseases like nephrosis.
  2. Acute Hemolytic anemia.
  3. Juvenile pulmonary emphysema.

Increased α-2 globulin seen in:

  1. Kidney disease like nephrotic syndrome.
  2. The inflammatory disease that is due to an increase in the acute phase proteins.

Decreased α-2 globulin seen in:

  1. In hemolysis because haptoglobin is alpha 2 globulin which will decrease in hemolysis.
  2. Wilson’s disease.
  3. Hyperthyroidism.
  4. The liver disease when liver function is defective.

Increased β- globulin is seen in:

  1. Biliary Cirrhosis.
  2. Obstructive jaundice.
  3. Neoplasm like multiple myeloma.
  4. In all hypercholesterolemia which may be due to hypothyroidism and nephrosis.
  5. iron deficiency anemia.

Decreased β- globulin is seen in:

  1. Kidney diseases like nephrosis.
  2. malnutrition.

Increased  γ- globulin is seen in:

  1. Hepatic diseases like cirrhosis.
  2. acute and Chronic infections.
  3. Multiple myelomas.
  4. Autoimmune diseases like SLE and rheumatoid arthritis.
  5. Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia.
  6. Leukemia.
  7. Malignancies like Hodgkin’s lymphoma, lymphomas,

Decreased γ- globulin is seen in:

  1. Nephrotic syndrome.
  2. Agammaglobulinemia.
  3. hypogammaglobulinemia.
  4. An immune deficiency which may be due to infections, steroid therapy, or lymphomas.

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