AFB testing may be used to detect several different types of acid-fast bacilli, but it is most commonly used to identify an active tuberculosis (TB) infection caused by the most medically important AFB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Pleural fluid is a fluid that is found between the layers of the pleura. The pleura is a two-layered membrane that covers the lungs and lines the chest cavity. The area that contains pleural fluid is known as the pleural space. Normally, there is a small amount of pleural fluid in the pleural space.
|Related Articles||Sputum For AFB|
Bronchial Washing for AFB
CSF For AFB
Pleural Fluid For AFB
|Specimen||Specimen Type: Fluid|
Container/Tube: Sterile leak-proof container
Volume: 10 mL
Minimum Volume: 5 mL
|Methods||ZN Stain, Fluorescent Microscopy, Conventional Microscopy, Auramine Stain|
Why to Get Tested:
To help diagnose tuberculosis (TB) and infections caused by other Mycobacterium species, which are known as acid-fast bacilli (AFB), in people at risk of developing mycobacterial infections; to monitor the effectiveness of treatment
When to get Tested:
- When you have signs and symptoms of a lung infection, such as a chronic cough, weight loss, fever, chills, and weakness, that may be due to TB or a nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection
- When you have a positive IGRA blood test or Tuberculin skin test (TST) and you are in a high-risk group for progressing to active TB
- When you have a skin or other body site infection that may be due to mycobacteria; when you are undergoing treatment for TB
Purpose Of The Test (Indications)
- This is a special stain for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in various specimens like sputum, caseous material, and tissue.
- The AFB smear stain used to monitor the treatment of Tuberculosis.
- The AFB stain on sputum is indicated in a patient with:
- A cough.
- Night sweating.
- Unexplained weight loss.
- Fatigue and weakness.
- Chest pain.
- Advise AFB stain in high-risk patients like immunocompromised patients, alcoholics, or have recent exposure to TB patients.
Specimen Collection and Instructions
Specimen Type: Pleural, Pericardial, Peritoneal, Spinal Fluid, Other Body Fluids
Container/Tube: Sterile container
Collection Instructions: Indicate source. Label with 2 patient identifiers.
- Large volumes are required for optimal processing and results.
- Up to 100 mL will be concentrated by centrifugation for media inoculation. Sterile collection containers must be used.
Transport Temperature: Ambient for spinal fluid, refrigerated for all other body fluids.
There are 2 Most common Procedure to Examin the Sputum smears.
Positive Result is:
- The acid-fast bacilli are red color rods and the background is blue.
- When these Rods are seen indicate active tuberculosis.
- Positive AFB stain may be confirmed by the culture.
The Negative Result Is:
A negative result means that:
- There is no infection.
- The number of bacteria was not in sufficient amount to be seen under the microscope.
- Symptoms may be due to some other cause.
Reporting Of The AFB Stain.
|Presence of AF bacilli||Positivity report|
|When rarely seen||1+ Rare|
|When few bacilli were seen||2+ Few|
|When the moderate number of bacilli are seen||3+ Moderate|
|When many bacilli are seen||4+ Many|
|Negative||When no bacilli found|
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