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Normal urine is clear with a slight tint of yellow, often referred to as “straw colored.” How much yellow color is present fluctuates with the amount of water in the body. A person who is well-hydrated and drinks six to eight glasses of water per day typically has light yellow urine. A person who drinks less water than they should may have a darker yellow urine.

Physical Examination of Urine

Also Know As: Urinery Apperance,

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Test Panel: Physical properties, Chemical Tests, Dipstick Tests, Microscopic Examination

Unusual appearance of urine

Cloudy urine: The urine may be cloudy due to sediment in the urine, for retaining urine too long before going to the bathroom, prostate problems, sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and enlarged prostate. The infection can also cause the presence of white or red blood cells and pus, which can also cause turbidity.

Foamy urine: urine that looks foamy or bubbly is usually the result of a very strong urine flow. That can mean “pushing” harder than normal to make urine flow, or even high blood pressure. If it persists over time, you may want to have a urine test. Foamy urine may also be a sign of elevated protein in the urine, which may be a sign of a kidney problem.

Smell of urine: There are many reasons why urine may have a smell. Dehydration strengthens the urine, which can cause increased odor. Certain foods, such as asparagus, can make urine smell. There are also conditions that can cause an unusual smell in the urine, such as maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) that makes the urine smell like pancake syrup. The following are some conditions associated with particular urine odors:

  • Sweet smelling urine may indicate diabetes.
  • Smoky-smelling urine is often the result of liver disease or liver failure.
  • Smelly urine is usually associated with the presence of a urinary tract infection.

In general, the smell of urine should be worrying if it persists without explanation or if it is of a dirty nature. If it is related to food or due to dehydration, it should pass throughout the day as you drink water and the urine returns to normal.

Blue / green urine: This is most often caused by the presence of food coloring. Strongly colored foods, such as dark blue frosting, can cause a change in the color of urine, just like asparagus. Green urine may also indicate the presence of pseudomonas bacteria, a very rare condition called porphyria, or dyes used for medical tests.

It is known that some medications, such as Propofol, Tagamet, methylene blue, amitriptyline and Indocin, cause a bluish-green urine color. This is not usually a sign of a kidney problem, but it can still be alarming for the unsuspecting patient taking these medications.

There is a rare inherited condition that increases calcium levels and can cause blue urine, commonly known as “blue diaper syndrome.”

Amber or brown urine: the most common cause of dark urine is dehydration, with darkening of the urine as dehydration worsens, but this color can also be the result of kidney or liver disease. Rhabdomyolysis, a condition that results from muscle damage, can also darken urine that is often referred to as “tea color.” Fava beans and rhubarb can also cause dark urine.

When the liver is too sick to do its job by removing bilirubin from the bloodstream, the kidneys can help with the process. Bilirubin is usually removed from the body in the stool and is the reason why the stool is brown. When the kidneys help remove bilirubin from the body, the urine is also a brown tone.

Orange urine: The most common cause of orange urine is a medicine called pyridium. Also known as Azo in its over-the-counter formulation, Pyridium is used to reduce the symptoms of urinary tract infections. Carrots, other bright orange foods and vitamin C can also produce orange urine.

Pink / red urine: Pink urine can often be attributed to food intake. Beets in particular are known to cause urine production that varies from pink to red. Blackberries and rhubarb can also produce this effect. Tuberculosis medication Rifampin and senna, a stool softener, can also produce pink or red urine.

Blood in the urine can cause a change in the colors of the urine ranging from pink to dark red. A very small amount of blood can change the color of the urine, but blood in the urine can also be a sign of a significant problem in the urinary tract. If there is no clear explanation as to why blood may be present in the urine, such as a menstrual period, medical attention should be sought.

Bright yellow: It is known that B12 vitamins cause a bright or intense yellow urine color, beta carotene (foods like carrots) can also cause this result. Sometimes the color can be more orange than yellow.

Purple: There is a very rare condition called purple urine bag syndrome, which, as you can imagine, is typically found in people who have a Foley catheter to help with drainage and urine collection. Oddly enough, purple urine only occurs when a patient has highly alkaline urine and a catheter in place. The urine does not really change color, only purple appears in the collection bag and if the catheter and the collection bag are changed, the urine returns to its normal color.

Porphyria, a very rare condition, can also result in a purple color.

White urine: chyluria, or white urine, is usually caused by mixing lymphatic fluid with urine. It can also be caused by a filarial infestation, a type of parasitic disease.

Black urine: Macrobid, Flagyl and Robaxin medications are known to cause black urine. The sorbitol sweetener / laxative can also produce black urine. Iron injections, which are used to treat certain types of anemia, can also cause black urine, but oral iron does not.

Black urine disease, also known as alkaptonuria, is a rare condition in which the body cannot process specific amino acids.

Fluorescence: in adults, this is a hallmark of ethylene glycol (antifreeze) poisoning and usually only lasts a few hours after poisoning. Under a black light, the urine of someone poisoned with antifreeze will glow blue if the sample is obtained within the first four hours after poisoning. In children it may suggest antifreeze poisoning, but, interestingly, healthy children can be found perfectly and They should not be used alone to diagnose poisoning in younger patients.

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