A urinalysis is a test of your urine. A urinalysis is used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease and diabetes.
A urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine. Abnormal urinalysis results may point to a disease or illness.
Type of urine samples:
- Random sample:
This is a diluted urine sample and may give an inaccurate interpretation of patient health. But is best to do microscopy to evaluate WBC or RBC.
- First Morning sample:
This is the best sample for microscopy and urine analysis. This is the concentrated urine because of urine remained throughout the night in the urinary bladder. This will contains an increased concentration of analytes and cellular elements. Urine must have remained in the bladder for 8 hours is considered as the first-morning sample.
- Urine for sugar (Postprandial 2 hours):
Postprandial 2 hours sample collected after 2 hours of high carbohydrate diet.
- Midstream clean catch urine:
This sample is needed for the culture and sensitivity of urinary infection. The patient is advised to clean the urethra, then discard the first few mL of urine. Now midstream of the urine is collected in the sterile container.
- 24 Hours of a urine sample
- In this case, discard the first urine and note the time.
- Now collect urine in the container for 24 hours and put the last sample in the container.
- Refrigerate the sample.
- This 24 hours samples are needed for measuring urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, glucose, and catecholamines.
- Suprapubic collection of the urine sample:
This is done in the patients who cannot be catheterized and the sample is needed for culture. This sample is collected by the needle.
- Catheter collection of urine:
This is done by patients who are bedridden and can not urinate.
- Pediatric urine sample:
In infants, special collection bags are made adherent around the urethra. Then urine is transferred to a container.
Uric Acid Test in Urine:
A uric acid test measures the amount of uric acid in the body. Uric acid is a chemical that’s produced when your body breaks down purines. Purines are compounds that enter the bloodstream during the natural breakdown of cells in the body.
- This test is done in the urine.
- Collect urine for 24 hours.
- Discard the first sample, then collect all urine samples till 24 hours are completed.
- Also, add the last sample to the container.
- Do not refrigerate the urine, add NaOH to keep the urine alkaline.
Why Get Tested:
An increased amount of uric acid in the urine often indicates gout, which is a common form of arthritis. This condition is characterized by severe pain and tenderness in the joints, especially those in the toes and ankles. Other symptoms of gout include:
- swelling in a joint
- reddened or discolored skin around a joint
- a joint that’s hot to the touch
When to get Tested:
- To find if kidney stones are due to high uric acid level in the body.
- Evaluates uric acid metabolism in gout.
- It helps to evaluate the effect of uricosuric drugs
- 250 to 750 mg/24 hours or 1.48 to 4.43 mmol/24 hours
Raised urine uric acid level seen in:
- Cancers (widespread disease).
- Chronic myelogenous leukemia.
- Multiple myelomas.
- Viral hepatitis.
- High – purine diet.
- Wilson’s disease.
- Sickle cell anemia.
- Polycythemia vera.
- Renal calculi.
Decreased urine uric acid level seen in:
- Long-term alcohol abuse.
- Chronic glomerulonephritis
- Lead poisoning
- Folic acid deficiency.
- Cytotoxic drugs.
- Acidosis (ketotic or lactic).
Possible References Used