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List of Basic Calculations/Formulas Used in Clinical and Medical Laboratories for Genarate Results and any Other Purpose.


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Urine Protein:

24 Hours Urine0.04 – 0.12 g/24 hrs
Spot UrineResult (mg/dl)Up to 12.0 mg/dl
The test for protein in the urine measures the amount of albumin in your urine, compared to the amount of creatinine in your urine. This is called the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR).

Urine Creatinine:

24 Hours Urine0.5 -1.5 g/24 hrs
Spot UrineResult (mg/dl)60 – 166 mg/dl
A creatinine urine test measures the amount of creatinine in your urine. Creatinine is a chemical waste product produced by muscle metabolism. When your kidneys are functioning normally.

Creatinine Clearance:

Creatinine ClearanceUrine Creatinin Clearance50 – 150 ml/mint
A creatinine clearance test compares the amount of creatinine in your blood to the amount in your urine over a 24-hour period. This shows how fast your kidneys clear creatinine from your body. Your doctor may ask you to do a creatinine clearance test to see how well your kidneys are working.

Urine Calcium

24 Hours Urine60 – 300 mg/24 hrs
Spot UrineResult (mg/dl) x 1060 – 300 mg/l
Calcium is one of the most common minerals in the body. All cells throughout the body use calcium for various functions. The body uses calcium to build and repair bones and teeth. Calcium also helps nerves, the heart, and muscles function properly, and helps blood to clot.

Urine Uric Acid

24 Hours Urine250 – 750 mg/24 hrs
Spot UrineResult (mg/dl) x 10250 – 750 mg/l
A uric acid test measures the amount of uric acid in the body. Uric acid is a chemical that’s produced when your body breaks down purines.

Urine Phosphate

24 Hours Urine0.3 – 1.5 g/24 hrs
Spot Urine0.3 – 1.5 g/l
A urine phosphate test measures how much phosphate is in your pee over a 24-hour period. Your doctor might also call it a phosphorous test.

Urine Urea

24 Hours Urine15 – 40 g/24 hrs
Spot Urine15 – 40 g/l
The urine urea nitrogen test determines how much urea is in the urine to assess the amount of protein breakdown. The test can help determine how well the kidneys are functioning and whether your intake of protein is too high or low.


Urine 50 – 1400 m Osmol/Kg of H2O
Serum270 – 295 m Osmol/Kg of H2O
Osmolality is a measure of how much one substance has dissolved in another substance. The greater the concentration of the substance dissolved, the higher the osmolality. Very salty water has higher osmolality than water with just a hint of salt.

Fraction Na Excretion (FeNa)

Serum1 – 3 %
Urine1 – 2 %
Fractional excretion of sodium is the amount of salt (sodium) that leaves the body through urine compared to the amount filtered and reabsorbed by the kidney. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is not a test. Instead it is a calculation based on the concentrations of sodium and creatinine in the blood and urine.

Ionized Calcium

SerumChildren = 4.4 – 6.0 mg/dl
Adult = 4.4 – 5.3 mg/dl
Ionized calcium is calcium in your blood that is not attached to proteins. It is also called free calcium. All cells need calcium in order to work. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. It is important for heart function.

Transferrin Saturation:

Transferrin Saturation20 – 55 %
Transferrin saturation (TS), measured as a percentage, is a medical laboratory value. It is the value of serum iron divided by the total iron-binding capacity of the available transferrin, the main protein that binds iron in the blood, this value tells a clinician how much serum iron is bound.


Spot UrineResult (m.mol/l)40 – 220 m.mol/l
24 Hours Urine40 – 220 m.mol/24 hrs
A sodium blood test is a routine test that allows your doctor to see how much sodium is in your blood. It’s also called a serum sodium test.


Spot UrineResult (m.mol/l)30 – 80 m.mol/l
24 Hours Urine30 – 80 m.mol/24 hrs
A potassium blood test measures the amount of potassium in your blood. Potassium is a type of electrolyte. Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals in your body that help control muscle and nerve activity, maintain fluid levels, and perform other important functions.


Spot UrineResult (m.mol/l)140 – 250 m.mol/l
24 Hours Urine140 – 250 m.mol/24 hrs
A chloride blood test is used to diagnose a variety of health conditions. Here’s what the results mean and what happens after taking the test.


Spot UrineResult (mg/l)< 30.0 mg/l
24 Hour Urine< 30.0 mg/24 hrs
The microalbuminuria test is a urine test that measures the amount of albumin in your urine. Albumin is a protein that your body uses for cell growth and to help repair tissues. It’s normally present in the blood. A certain level of it in your urine may be a sign of kidney damage.


SerumResult (U/L)19 to 86 U/L
Spot UrineResult (U/L)Upto 48 U/l
45 hrs UrineUpto 17 U/hrs
Amylase is an enzyme, or special protein, produced by your pancreas and salivary glands. The pancreas is an organ located behind your stomach.

Lipid :

Total LipidChol + TG + HDL + LDL + VLDL
Chol/HDL RatioChol ÷ HDL
Lipid profile or lipid panel is a panel of blood tests that serves as an initial screening tool for abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides.


Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)S. Urea ÷ 2.14
A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea. Urea is made when protein is broken down in your body. Urea is made in the liver and passed out of your body in the urine. A BUN test is done to see how well your kidneys are working.


INR (International Normalized Ratio)Result ÷Control x ISI
An INR test measures the time for the blood to clot. It is also known as prothrombin time, or PT. It is used to monitor blood-thinning medicines, which are also known as anticoagulants. The INR, or international normalised ratio, can also be used to check if you have a blood clotting problem.

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