The bone marrow is the spongy material inside some larger bones where blood cells are produced. Analyzing a sample of bone marrow can reveal what is causing the blood problem.
Bone marrow biopsy is commonly used to diagnose a variety of blood problems, both non-cancerous and cancerous, including blood cancers, such as leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma. A bone marrow biopsy can also detect cancers that started elsewhere and traveled to the bone marrow.
During a bone marrow biopsy, the doctor removes a sample of bone marrow from the back of the hip bone with a long needle. In some cases, the doctor may do a bone marrow biopsy of other bones in the body. You receive a local anesthetic before a bone marrow biopsy to minimize discomfort during the procedure.