Acute biphenotypic leukemia (ABL), also known as mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL), is a rare and aggressive form of leukemia characterized by the presence of both myeloid and lymphoid features in the leukemia cells. It is considered a subtype of acute leukemia that does not fit neatly into the categories of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
- APML – Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
- AGL – Acute Granulocytic Leukemia
- ALL – Acute Lymphatic Leukemia
- ALL – Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
- AMEL – Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia
- AMML – Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia
- AML – Acute Monocytic Leukemia
- AML – Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia
- AML – Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
- AML – Acute Myeloid Leukemia
- APL – Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
- AMOL – Acute Monocytic Leukemia
- AUL – Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia
- tAPL – Therapy-Related Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
- ABL – Acute Basophilic Leukemia
- ABL – Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia
- M3 – acute promyelocytic leukemia
- t-APL – therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia
- AProL – acute promyelocytic leukemia
Do we know what causes it?
BAL can develop for no known reason, or after another cancer treatment.
Signs and symptoms:
BAL has similar symptoms to other types of leukemia, but they are usually more severe.
Symptoms caused by bone marrow damage
- Bruises, spots – the reason is the lack of platelets. is very common in BAL patients, most patients die due to
- A low level of red blood cells in the bloodstream – due to decreased hematopoietic function, blood transfusion therapy is needed
- Persistent fever, infection prolonged healing:
- Diffuse bleeding: which is dangerous and can lead to death.
Symptoms caused by the infiltration of blood cancer cells into the tissues:
- swollen lymph nodes
- joint pain
- swelling of the gums
- Enlarged liver and spleen
- Headache and vomiting: blood cancer infiltration in the performance of the central nervous system wear.
- Lumps on the skin: Because the appearance was slightly green, also known as the “Green Tumor”.
- Pericardial or pleural effusion
Factors that may increase your risk of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) include:
- Growing age. The risk of acute myelogenous leukemia increases with age. Acute myelogenous leukemia is most common in adults 65 years of age and older.
- Your Sex. Men are more likely to develop acute myelogenous leukemia than women.
- Previous cancer treatment. People who have received certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be at higher risk of developing AML.
- Exposure to radiation. People exposed to very high levels of radiation, such as survivors of a nuclear reactor accident, are at increased risk of developing AML.
- Hazardous chemical exposure. Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene, is linked to an increased risk of AML.
- Of smoking. AML is related to cigarette smoke, which contains benzene and other known cancer-causing chemicals.
- Other blood disorders. People who have had another blood disorder, such as myelodysplasia, myelofibrosis, polycythemia vera, or thrombocythemia, are at increased risk of developing AML.
- Genetic disorders. Certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, are associated with an increased risk of AML.
The initial laboratory workup of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) should include the following:
- Complete blood cell (CBC) count with differential
- Peripheral blood smear
- Comprehensive metabolic profile for baseline renal and liver function tests,
- Electrolyte levels
- Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)
- Fibrinogen assay
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