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MCQ’s Chapter 39 (Lab)

Some of Common Questions and Answers for Laboratory Technicians and Technologists.

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MCQs Chapter 39
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Questions 1901 to 1950

  1. An immunoglobulin is a
    1. glycoprotein
    2. fatty acid
    3. protein
    4. carbohydrate
  2. An antigen that overstimualtes the immune system by binding nonspecifically to MHC on antigen presenting cells is termed
    1. Non specific antigen
    2. Toxic shock syndrome
    3. Super necrotic
    4. Super antigen
    5. Epitope
  3. Individuals of blood group type AB:
    1. Are Rh(D)-negative
    2. Have circulating anti-A and anti-B antibodies
    3. Are “universal recipients” of transfusions
    4. Have the same haplotype
  4. The membrane IgM and IgD on the surface of an individual B cell:
    1. Are identical except for their CH regions
    2. Have identical heavy chains but different light chains
    3. Are identical except for their VH regions
    4. Have different VH and VL regions
  5. Which of the following antibodies would most likely be found in body secretions such as tears, milk, saliva and mucus?
    1. IgG
    2. IgE
    3. IgM
    4. IgA
    5. IgD
  6. Which one of the following is NOT true of the gene segments that combine to make up a heavy chain gene?
    1. A V segment and a J segment are preselected by an antigen to make up the
    2. variable-region portion of the gene.
    3. Many V region segments are available.
    4. Several J segments and several D segments are available.
    5. V, D, and J segments combine to encode the antigen-binding site.
  7. Mitochondria are missing in
    1. Filamentous fungi
    2. Cestodes
    3. Protozoan parasites
    4. Yeasts
    5. Bacteria
  8. Which one of the following statements is the MOST accurate comparison of human, bacterial, and fungal cells?
    1. Human and bacterial cells have plasmids, whereas fungal cells do not
    2. Human and fungal cells have a similar cell wall, in contrast to bacteria,
    3. whose cell wall contain peptidoglycan
    4. Human and fungal cells have similar robosomes, whereas bacterial ribosomes are different
    5. Human cell undergo mitosis, whereas neither bacteria nor fungi do
  9. Each of the following statements concerning bacterial spores is correct EXCEPT:
    1. They are formed by gram-positive rods
    2. They can be killed by being heated to 121oC for 15 minutes
    3. Their survival ability is based on their enhanced metabolic activity
    4. They contain much less water than bacterial cells
  10. Which of the following BEST describes the mode of action of endotoxin?
    1. Degrades lecithin in cell membranes
    2. Blocks release of acetylcholine
    3. Causes the release of tumor necrosis factor
    4. Inactivates elongation factor 2
  11. A cancer chemotherapy patient has to have her intravenous port revised after it becomes blocked and the catheter is found to contain bacterial contaminants. Which of the following attributes is most likely to be a factor in this pathogenesis?
    1. Possession of IgA protease
    2. Possession of pili
    3. Peptidoglycan layer
    4. Ergosterol containing membrane
    5. Biofilm production
  12. Each of the following statements concerning bacterial spores is correct EXCEPT:
    1. Spores are resistant to boiling
    2. Spores are formed primarily by organisms of the genus Neisseria
    3. Spores are metabolically inactive and contain dipicolinic acid, a calcium chelator
    4. Spores are formed under adverse environmental conditions such as the absence of a carbon source
  13. Usually, bacteria form more endospores in response to:
    1. Nutrient surplus
    2. Adverse environmental stress
    3. Colony formation
    4. Need for reproduction
  14. Each of the following statements concerning endotoxin is correct EXCEPT:
    1. They are part of the bacterial cells wall, whereas exotoxins are not
    2. They are less potent (ie, less active on a weight basis) than exotoxins
    3. They are more stable on heating than exotoxins
    4. They bind to specific cells receptors whereas exotoxins do not
  15. Each of the following statements regarding the selective action of antibiotics on bacteria is correct EXCEPT:
    1. Penicillins affect bacteria rather than human cells because bacteria have a cell wall, whereas human cells do not.
    2. Sulfonamides affect folic acid synthesis in bacteria, a pathway that does not occur in human cells.
    3. Isoniazid affects the DNA polymerase of bacteria but not that of human cells.
    4. Chloramphenicol affects the large subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which is different from the large subunit of the human ribosome.
  16. A 12-year-old boy presents to his pediatrician with fever, malaise, and a sore throat. Physical examination reveals a fever of 103°F, cervical lymphadenopathy, and pharyngeal erythema. A swab is taken from some of the tonsillar exudate and cultured on blood agar. Culture reveals beta hemolytic, gram-positive cocci, and a rapid antigen test is positive. What is the major component that protects the causal agent from osmotic damage?
    1. Lipopolysaccharide
    2. Polysaccharide
    3. Phospholipids
    4. Teichoic acid
    5. Peptidoglycan
  17. The effect of endotoxin include each of the following EXCEPT:
    1. Activation of the coagulation cascade
    2. Fever
    3. Hypotension
    4. Opsonization
  18. Bacterial surface structures that show antigenic diversity include each of the following EXCEPT:
    1. Peptidoglycan
    2. Flagella
    3. Pili
    4. Capsules
  19. Which of the following microscopic techniques provide three-dimensional images of a bacterial cell?
    1. Transmission electron microscopy
    2. Scanning electron microscopy
    3. Dark-field microscopy
    4. Fluorescent microscopy
  20. Each of the following statements concerning the surface structures of bacteria is correct EXCEPT:
    1. Pili mediate the interaction of bacteria with mucosal epithelium
    2. Polysaccharide capsules retard phagocytosis
    3. Both gram-negative rods and cocci have lipopolysaccharide “endotoxin” intheir cell wall
    4. Bacterial flagella are nonantigenic in humans because they closely resemble human flagella in chemical composition
  21. Each of the following statements concerning exotoxins are correct EXCEPT:
    1. When treated chemically, some exotoxins lose their toxicity and can be used as immunogens in vaccine
    2. Some exotoxins are capable of causing disease in purified form, free of any bacteria
    3. Some exotoxins act in the gastrointestinal tract to cause diarrhea
    4. Some exotoxins contain lipopolysaccharides as the toxic components
  22. Each of the following statements concerning the structure and chemical composition of bacteria is correct EXCEPT:
    1. Some gram-positive cocci contain a layer of teichoic acid external to the peptidoglycan
    2. Some gram-negative rods contain lipid A in their cell wall
    3. Some mycoplasmas contain pentaglycine in their peptidoglycan
    4. Some gram-positive rods contain dipicolinic acid in their spores
  23. The presence of a capsule around bacterial cells usually indicates their increased disease-causing potential and resistance to disinfection. Capsules are generally viewed by:
    1. Scanning electron microscopy
    2. Ziehl-Neelsen staining
    3. Gram staining
    4. Negative staining
  24. What structure is most responsible for triggering Gram-negative shock?
    1. Capsule
    2. Periplasmic space
    3. Peptidoglycan- teichoic acid fragments
    4. Outer Membrane
    5. Heat Shock Proteins
  25. What is an organism called that respires on the presence of oxygen and ferments in the absence of oxygen?
    • Facultative anaerobe
    • Aerobe
    • Anaerobe
    • Facultative aerobe
    • Microaerophile
  26. The MAIN host defense against bacterial exotoxins is
    1. Modulation of host cell receptors in response to the toxin
    2. IgG and IgM antibodies
    3. Activated macrophages secreting proteases
    4. Helper T cells

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