Acid-base disturbances are pathologic changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2) or serum bicarbonate (HCO3-) that typically produce abnormal arterial pH values.
- Acidemia is a serum pH < 7.35. Alkalemia is a serum pH > 7.45.
- Acidosis refers to physiological processes that cause acid accumulation or alkali loss.
- Alkalosis refers to physiological processes that cause alkali accumulation or acid loss.
The actual changes in pH depend on the degree of physiological compensation and the presence of multiple processes.
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