This test measures the amount of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) in the blood. AAT is a protein that is made in the liver. It helps protect your lungs from damage and diseases, such as emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
|Test Name||ALPHA-1-ANTITRYPSIN QUANTITATION; AAT|
|Purpose||Congenital deficiency of AAT is associated with early lung disease, Neonatal hepatitis and Infantile cirrhosis.|
|PreTest Preparations||No special preparation required|
|Specimen||2 mL (0.5 mL min.) serum from 1 Red Top (No Additive) tube. Do not use SST gel barrier tubes. Separate serum from cells immediately. Ship refrigerated or frozen.|
|Stability Refrigerated||3 days|
|Stability Frozen||3 months|
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT deficiency) is an inherited condition that raises your risk for lung and liver disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a protein that protects the lungs. The liver makes it. If the AAT proteins aren’t the right shape, they get stuck in the liver cells and can’t reach the lungs.
Symptoms of AAT deficiency include
- Shortness of breath and wheezing
- Repeated lung infections
- Rapid heartbeat upon standing
- Vision problems
- Weight loss
Why do I need an AAT test ?
You may need an AAT test if you are under the age of 45, are not a smoker, and have symptoms of lung disease, including:
- Shortness of breath
- Chronic cough
- Faster than normal heartbeat when you stand up
- Vision problems
- Asthma that doesn’t respond well to treatment
When to get tested?
When your baby or toddler shows signs of liver disease.
When you develop emphysema before age 40
When you have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or unexplained liver disease at any age.
When you have a close family member with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
- The patient needs to fast for several hours before giving the sample.
- This test is done in the serum or plasma.
- Separate serum immediately and store properly.
- Take 3 to 5 ml of blood in the disposable syringe. Keep the syringe for 15 to 30 minutes and then centrifuge for 2 to 4 minutes. In this way can get a clear serum.
- Serum or plasma is stable for ≥ 7 days at 4 °C.
- At -70 °C is stable for 3 months.
- This is raised during pregnancy.
- Oral contraceptives increase the level of AAT.
|Newborn||145 to 270 mg/dL|
|Adult||78 to 200 mg/dL|
|>60 years||115 to 200 mg/dL|
- Normal = 85 to 213 mg/dL (0.85 to 2.13 g/L).
Increased Level Is Seen In:
- Inflammatory disorders.
- Hormonal effects.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus.
- Brain infarction.
- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
Decreased Level Is Seen In:
- Kidney diseases like Nephrotic syndrome.
- Liver diseases like acute hepatitis.
- In lung as respiratory distress syndrome and Emphysema.
- Protein-losing gastro- enteropathies.
- Congenital defects.
- AAT levels are secondarily low in patients like:
- Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.
- Severe pancreatitis.
- Protein-losing disorders.
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