A urinalysis is a test of your urine. A urinalysis is used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease and diabetes.
A urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine. Abnormal urinalysis results may point to a disease or illness.
Type of urine samples:
- Random sample:
This is a diluted urine sample and may give an inaccurate interpretation of patient health. But is best to do microscopy to evaluate WBC or RBC.
- First Morning sample:
This is the best sample for microscopy and urine analysis. This is the concentrated urine because of urine remained throughout the night in the urinary bladder. This will contains an increased concentration of analytes and cellular elements. Urine must have remained in the bladder for 8 hours is considered as the first-morning sample.
- Urine for sugar (Postprandial 2 hours):
Postprandial 2 hours sample collected after 2 hours of high carbohydrate diet.
- Midstream clean catch urine:
This sample is needed for the culture and sensitivity of urinary infection. The patient is advised to clean the urethra, then discard the first few mL of urine. Now midstream of the urine is collected in the sterile container.
- 24 Hours of a urine sample
- In this case, discard the first urine and note the time.
- Now collect urine in the container for 24 hours and put the last sample in the container.
- Refrigerate the sample.
- This 24 hours samples are needed for measuring urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, glucose, and catecholamines.
- Suprapubic collection of the urine sample:
This is done in the patients who cannot be catheterized and the sample is needed for culture. This sample is collected by the needle.
- Catheter collection of urine:
This is done by patients who are bedridden and can not urinate.
- Pediatric urine sample:
In infants, special collection bags are made adherent around the urethra. Then urine is transferred to a container.
Urine Specific Gravity
The main role of your kidneys is to filter your blood and maintain normal electrolyte balance. Testing urine specific gravity is a quick way for your healthcare provider to tell if your kidneys are trying to compensate for some abnormality.
Why get Tested:
- Urine analysis is part of the routine diagnostic profile.
- This gives an idea about the kidney function.
- This also gives an idea about the hydration status.
- Adult = 1.005 to 1.030.
- Usually, it is 1.010 to 1.025
- Newborn = 1.001 to 1.020.
- The random urine sample can be taken.
- Urine collected after the I/V administration of iodine-containing radiopaque material gives high values of specific gravity.
- Glucose and the protein in the urine also give high value.
- Diabetic patient with hyperglycemia gives high value.
People should avoid any foods that can change the color of the urine for a few days leading up to the test. These foods include:
- fava beans
The Increased specific gravity is seen in:
- Decreased renal blood flow.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Excessive water loss in fever, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- Toxemia of pregnancy.
- Congestive heart failure.
- water restriction.
The Decreased specific gravity is seen in:
- Diabetes insipidus.
- Early chronic failure.
- severe renal damage.
Possible References Used