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Acidosis and Alkalosis

Acidosis and alkalosis are conditions in which there is a disturbance in the pH balance (acid-base balance) of the body. Acidosis is a condition in which body fluids become too acidic, with an abnormally low pH level. In alkalosis, the opposite occurs: the body’s fluids are too alkaline (high in pH).

Acid-base disorders 

Acid-base disturbances are pathologic changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2) or serum bicarbonate (HCO3-) that typically produce abnormal arterial pH values. Acidemia is a serum pH < 7.35. Alkalemia is a serum pH > 7.45. Acidosis refers to physiological processes that cause acid accumulation or alkali loss. Alkalosis refers to physiological processes that cause alkali accumulation or acid loss. The actual changes in pH depend on the degree of physiological compensation and […]

Acid-Base Imbalance

Metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis are caused by an imbalance in the production of acids or bases and their excretion by the kidneys. Respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis are caused by changes in the exhalation of carbon dioxide due to lung or respiratory disorders.

Base Excess

Arterial Blood Gases

It is defined as the amount of acid required to restore a litre of blood to its normal pH at a PaCO2 of 40 mmHg. The base excess increases in metabolic alkalosis and decreases (or becomes more negative) in metabolic acidosis, but its utility in interpreting blood gas results is controversial.

Endospore Stain

Endospores are dormant forms of living bacteria and should not be confused with reproductive spores produced by fungi. These structures are produced by a few genera of Gram-positive bacteria, almost all bacilli, in response to adverse environmental conditions. Two common bacteria that produce endospores are Bacillus or Clostridum. Both live primarily in soil and as symbionts of plants and animals, and produce endospores to survive in an environment that change rapidly and often. Endospore stain procedural steps. Step […]

Acid Fast Stain

Some bacteria produce the waxy substance mycolic acid when they construct their cell walls. Mycolic acid acts as a barrier, protecting the cells from dehydrating, as well as from phagocytosis by immune system cells in a host. This waxy barrier also prevents stains from penetrating the cell, which is why the Gram stain does not work with mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium, which are pathogens of humans and animals. For these bacteria, the acid–fast staining technique […]

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